Highlights - July 2019
ended during July 2019, as below-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) expanded
in the eastern equatorial Pacific and above-average SSTs
persisted in the central equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18, Table T2).
The latest monthly
Niņo indices were -0.3°C for the Niņo 1+2
for the Niņo 3.4 region and +0.9°C for the Niņo 4 region (Table T2,
Fig. T5). The depth
of the oceanic thermocline (measured by the depth of the 20°C isotherm) was slightly
above-average in the central equatorial Pacific and below-average in the eastern
equatorial Pacific (Figs. T15, T16). The
corresponding sub-surface temperatures were 0-1°C above average in the central
and east-central equatorial Pacific, and 1-2°C below average in the eastern
equatorial Pacific (Fig. T17).
Also during July, both the
lower-level easterly winds and upper-level westerly winds were weaker-than-average
across much of the equatorial Pacific (Table
T1, Fig. T20, Fig. T21). Meanwhile, tropical convection was suppressed
across Indonesia and the western Pacific, and near
average over the central Pacific (Figs. T25, E3).
Collectively, these mixed oceanic and atmospheric anomalies reflected a
transition from El Niņo to ENSO-neutral.
For the latest status of the ENSO
cycle see the ENSO Diagnostic Discussion at: