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Climate Diagnostics Bulletin
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  Tropical Highlights

  Table of Atmospheric Indices  (Table 1)

  Table of Oceanic Indices  (Table 2)

  Time Series

  Time-Longitude Sections

  Mean & Anomaly Fields

  Appendix 1: Outside Contributions

Tropical Highlights


The pattern of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

Tropical Highlights - December 2021



During December 2021, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were below-average across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18). The latest monthly Niņo indices were -1.5°C for the Niņo 1+2 region, -1.1°C for the Niņo 3.4 region and -0.9°C for the Niņo 4 region (Fig. T5, Table T2). The depth of the oceanic thermocline (measured by the depth of the 20°C isotherm) was below-average across the eastern equatorial Pacific (Figs. T15, T16). The corresponding sub-surface temperatures were 1-5°C below-average (Fig. T17).


Also during December, the lower-level easterly winds and the upper-level westerly winds were above-average across the east-central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Table T1, Fig. T20, Fig. T21). Meanwhile, tropical convection was suppressed over the central equatorial Pacific and enhanced over Indonesia and western equatorial Pacific (Figs. T25, E3). Collectively, these oceanic and atmospheric anomalies were consistent with La Niņa conditions.


For the latest status of the ENSO cycle see the ENSO Diagnostic Discussion at:

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