The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) forecast of
SST in the central Pacific (Barnett et al. 1988, Science, 241,
192‑196; Barnston and Ropelewski
1992, J. Climate, 5, 1316‑1345), is shown in Figs. F1 and F2. This forecast is produced routinely by the
Prediction Branch of the Climate Prediction Center. The
predictions from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
Coupled Forecast System Model (CFS03) are presented in Figs. F3 and
F4a, F4b. Predictions from the
Markov model (Xue, et al. 2000: J. Climate, 13,
849‑871) are shown in Figs. F5 and F6. Predictions from the latest version of the
LDEO model (Chen et al. 2000: Geophys. Res.
Let., 27, 2585‑2587) are shown in Figs. F7
and F8. Predictions using linear inverse modeling (Penland and Magorian 1993: J.
Climate, 6, 1067‑1076) are shown in Figs. F9 and F10. Predictions from the Scripps / Max Planck
Institute (MPI) hybrid coupled model (Barnett et al. 1993: J. Climate, 6,
1545‑1566) are shown in Fig. F11.
Predictions from the ENSO‑CLIPER statistical model (Knaff and Landsea 1997, Wea.
Forecasting, 12, 633‑652) are shown in Fig. F12. Niño 3.4 predictions are summarized in Fig.
F13, provided by the Forecasting and Prediction Research Group of the IRI.
The CPC and the contributors to the Forecast Forum caution
potential users of this predictive information that they can expect only modest
ENSO Alert System Status: El Niño Watch
is favored through Northern Hemisphere summer 2018, with the chance for El Niño
increasing to 50% during fall, and ~65% during winter 2018-19.
ENSO-neutral continued during May, as indicated by
mostly average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the central and eastern
equatorial Pacific (Fig. T18). The monthly Niño indices were between
+0.2°C and -0.2°C, except for the Niño-1+2 index, which remained negative
(-0.5°C; Table T2).
Positive subsurface temperature anomalies (averaged across 180°-100°W)
increased over the past month, as another downwelling
equatorial oceanic Kelvin wave reinforced the already above-average subsurface
temperatures (Fig. T17). Convection remained suppressed
near the Date Line and was slightly enhanced over Indonesia (Fig. T25). Low-level and upper-level winds were near
average across the equatorial Pacific Ocean (Figs. T20, T21). Overall, oceanic and atmospheric conditions
The majority of models in the
IRI/CPC plume predict ENSO-neutral to continue through the Northern Hemisphere
summer 2018, with El Niño most likely thereafter (Figs. F1-F13).
The forecaster consensus favors the onset of El Niño
during the Northern Hemisphere fall, which would then continue through winter.
These forecasts are supported by the ongoing
build-up of heat within the tropical Pacific Ocean. In summary, ENSO-neutral is favored through Northern Hemisphere summer 2018, with the
chance for El Niño increasing to 50% during fall, and ~65% during winter
Weekly updates of oceanic and
atmospheric conditions are available on the Climate Prediction Center homepage
Niño/La Niña Current Conditions and Expert Discussions).